Culinary Creations, Low-temperature cooking, Siphoning, Gelling, Rotary evaporator

Culinary Creations

Culinary creations bring together the artistic and technical ramifications of food and its preparation. They also help chefs develop their own culinary style.

A dish themed on the extinction of the dinosaurs features enlarged 3-D prints of micro-fossils. A rack of lamb dish is garnished with obsidian to represent the volcanic eruptions that contributed to mass extinctions.

Low-temperature cooking

Low-temperature cooking is a creative culinary technique that allows chefs to prepare dishes at temperatures lower than boiling. It can be used to create unique textures and flavors. However, it is important to remember that this method may not kill all micro-organisms. Therefore, it is important to cook food hygienically and cool it immediately afterward.

Low temperature cooking is a great way to produce succulent meats from less expensive cuts of beef and pork. It also works well for fish and root vegetables. However, some people are concerned that low temperature cooking can result in a uniform texture.

To avoid this, chefs should ensure that they sear the meat at a high temperature before roasting it at a lower temperature. This will prevent the inside from becoming mushy and will provide an extra level of flavor. Also, they should use a meat thermometer to monitor the internal temperature of the meat. A good thermometer will be able to tell whether the meat is rare, medium or well done.


The culinary siphon is a device used to transfer liquids from one container to another using gravity and atmospheric pressure. It consists of two arms joined at the bottom and shaped like a U. The inlet arm is shorter than the outlet arm, and the level of the water in each is kept at the same height.

The siphon also allows for a much higher concentration of air than other aeration methods, and it can be used to prepare a variety of preparations. It is particularly useful for preparing aeration and foams that are light in texture, making them ideal for desserts and cocktails.

For example, a whipping siphon can be used to create a foam made from fruit purees and coulis. This can be a more healthy alternative to classic creams, and it can help cater to the needs of diet-conscious clients. The whipping siphon also prevents the food from becoming oxidized, which is an important factor for keeping food fresh.


Gelling is a remarkable process that uses the interaction of various substances to create unique textures and flavors. Chefs use gelling to make a range of culinary creations, including jellies and jams. They also use it to thicken sauces and soups.

The gelling process relies on a combination of factors, such as the concentration of sodium alginate and the presence of calcium ions. When these molecules interact, they form a network of gelatinous strands that help to create the desired texture and consistency. This allows chefs to create innovative culinary creations that push the boundaries of traditional cooking.

Agar agar is an excellent gelling agent that can be found at health food stores and specialty grocery stores. It is easy to work with and can be used in a wide variety of recipes. Its versatility makes it an ideal alternative to gelatin, especially for those who are following a vegan lifestyle. Other popular gelling agents include guar gum and xanthan gum.

Rotary evaporator

A rotary evaporator is an essential tool in the field of molecular cooking, a modern culinary trend that uses scientific techniques to create unique flavors and textures. It works by evaporating solvents from herbs and fruits and distilling the remaining ingredients, resulting in concentrated extracts that can be used to add flavor to dishes. It can also be used to purify laboratory chemicals.

A complete rotary evaporator has a motor unit that rotates the evaporation flask, a vapor duct that channels the vapor, and a condenser that collects the distillate. It also has a foam sensor that reaches into the evaporation flask and aerates it whenever foam forms, which is often a problem when handling natural products that tend to foam.

To use the rotovap, first chop and dry your herbs and place them in a suitable solvent. You should then heat the mixture to a low temperature in the evaporation flask and apply controlled heat and vacuum conditions for effective extraction.

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Feeding Recommendations for Cats

How Much Food For Cat Does Your Cat Need?

A cat’s calorie requirements depend on many different factors. Using a food’s feeding recommendation is important, but a cat should also be weighed regularly to ensure their weight doesn’t increase or decrease too much.

A veterinarian can help determine an ideal body weight for your cat and recommend the proper amount of food to reach it. They can also help you determine the correct portion size for dry or wet food and treat consumption.


A calorie is a unit of energy that fuels all bodily processes. Cats need a certain amount of calories every day to maintain their current weight and health. This is called their Resting Energy Requirement (RER).

To determine your pet’s RER, start by weighing your cat. Once you know their weight, multiply it by the factor in Table 1 to calculate their basic calorie needs.

Then, divide your cat’s caloric requirements by the food’s calorie content to find out how much to feed them per meal. Keep in mind that high-calorie treats like deli meats should be limited, as they can add unnecessary calories to their daily intake and contribute to weight gain and other health issues. Your veterinarian will be able to provide more precise feeding recommendations.


Cats need at least one gram of protein per day for each pound of healthy body weight to create and maintain muscle mass. Kittens and pregnant or nursing cats need more protein because they are growing.

Since cats are obligate carnivores, the protein in their diet must be animal derived. In the United States, the National Research Council and the Association of American Feed Control Officials set minimum nutritional recommendations for commercial pet foods (7-10).

To determine how much protein a canned or dry food contains on an as-fed basis, subtract the moisture percentage from the crude protein percentage. Then divide the resulting number by 100. For example, a 5.5-ounce can of cat food that has a 10% protein content would contain 160 grams of protein on an as-fed basis.


In addition to protein, a good quality cat food should contain adequate fat for your cat’s energy needs. A fat content of 10% or higher is recommended, however many foods will have a lower fat level. A low-fat diet will be labeled as such, with the amount of fat contained in the food being listed in the guaranteed analysis.

When determining how much to feed your cat, it is important to keep in mind that your cat’s age, sex, activity levels and reproductive state will affect the total number of calories needed each day. Feeding your cat small meals throughout the day will satisfy their natural hunger and instincts while maintaining their ideal healthy weight. It is also a good idea to weigh your cat weekly to track any changes in weight.


Carbohydrates supply energy to cells through the form of glucose. Like protein and fat, they are an essential part of the body’s metabolic processes.

Cats are obligate carnivores and derive most of their energy from meat-based sources. While a low-carbohydrate diet is optimal, domestic cats can thrive on a diet that includes moderate amounts of low-glycemic plant ingredients.

Carbs should only account for about 3% of a cat’s calories. Some cats may struggle to adjust to a lower-carbohydrate diet and act as if they are starving all the time. This is why it is best to feed them small, frequent meals throughout the day. Using a timed/automatic feeder that automatically reduces the amount fed helps with this. This also gives you more control to cut back on calories slowly over time.


Unlike dry food, canned wet cat foods have a higher moisture content and contain fewer calories per volume. To determine how many cans a day your cat needs, refer to the recommended daily feeding amount on the back of the bag and then assess their body condition.

Wet foods can spoil if left out for too long, so offer fresh food several times a day. In the wild, cats eat 7-20 times per day and consume small amounts of food at each meal. This can help them avoid overeating. If you are feeding your pet wet or kibble, be sure to scoop their entire day’s allotment into one container each morning. This will keep their unused portion from going stale before they get to it and it will help you track their overall calorie intake.

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Discover the World of Cuisines Beginning with the Letter E

Explore a World of Cuisines That Begin With the Letter E

Explore a world of cuisines that begin with the letter E. From English muffins to elephant apples to espresso granita, this list of foods starting with E will expand your culinary vocabulary.

For a healthy lunch, try egg salad sandwiches or edamame. For a dinner, enjoy eel sashimi or eggplant parmesan.


Grain-based foods are staples in many cuisines and provide carbohydrates, fiber and protein. They’re also a great source of B vitamins, iron and magnesium. There are two main types of grains: cereal grains and pseudocereals. Cereal grains include wheat, barley, buckwheat, corn, millet, oats and rice. Pseudocereals include amaranth, quinoa and spelt.

A grain is considered whole if it retains all three parts of the kernel: the bran, germ and endosperm. In contrast, refined grains are processed so only the starchy endosperm remains. Eating too many refined grains can increase your risk of heart disease, Type 2 diabetes and digestive cancers.

Try to fill half your plate with whole grains. You can eat them in the form of simple sides or bold entrees. For example, a savory pilaf made with quinoa can easily substitute for couscous in many recipes. Or, spelt, which is similar to farro, can be used as a replacement in stuffed peppers.

Nuts & Seeds

Nuts and seeds get a bad rap because of their fat content but they are rich sources of heart-healthy unsaturated fats, protein, iron, zinc and dietary fibre. They also contain the plant omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid.

They can be eaten raw or roasted, added to foods like salads, whole grain cereals and yogurt, or made into nut butter. Some are toasted with salt, herbs and spices to make flavourful snacks. The seed coats of some nuts and seeds also contain protective plant phenolic compounds that have anti-inflammatory properties.

A handful of a variety of nuts and seeds a day is recommended as part of a healthy diet. They are a great substitute for less nutritious snacks, like biscuits and cakes, or can be combined with low energy-dense foods (such as vegetables) to create meals.


Stem tubers (or roots) are swollen structures that develop from the stem of certain vegetables, including potatoes. They store nutrients and water, helping the plants withstand unfavorable conditions. They also play a vital role in plant propagation, sprouting new vegetables from their sides.

Roots and tubers can be eaten raw, roasted, baked or boiled. They are a great source of dietary fiber and vitamins. They store well at cool temperatures, without refrigeration, and are available year round.

When purchasing these vegetables, select firm, brightly colored specimens that are free of rot or bruising. To extend the life of your tubers, it’s best to keep them in a dark, cool environment and use breathable storage containers. Be sure to store them separately from ethylene-sensitive produce such as bananas, apples and greens. Regular inspection and implementing the First In, First Out (FIFO) method are also important to ensure proper storage conditions. This will help prevent rot and sprouting.


Embark on an exhilarating journey of edible enlightenment and explore the world of foods that begin with the letter E. From earthy endives and delicate nutty edamame to hearty Ethiopian injera, this enticing selection will expand your culinary palate and ignite your senses.

The difference between a fruit and vegetable is not always clear-cut, even for nutritionists. For example, many people consider tomatoes to be a fruit while others categorize them as vegetables. The distinction can also depend on where you are from and which language you speak.

The good news is that most vegetables are low in calories, high in dietary fiber and rich in vitamins and minerals. They are a vital component of cuisines around the world and have been shown to contribute to improved health. Eat more veggies and make it a point to include at least five portions per day.

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